Blurred vision is characterized by a loss of visual acuity. This condition can occur in one or both eyes. In this case, objects will be blurred and will not appear fully clear or will appear faint.
The main causes of this condition are ametropia such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism or presbyopia. However, it can also be a symptom of more serious problems, including eye disorders that can threaten vision, or neurological disorders.
It can also be linked to the development of diseases such as diabetes, a chronic condition that can cause diabetic retinopathy due to high blood sugar levels damaging the blood vessels in the retina.
“When blood vessels are damaged, they can swell and leak blood, causing blurred vision or obstructing blood flow. Sometimes new blood vessels grow, but they are not normal and can cause more vision problems. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes,” according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases asserts that “high glucose levels can alter fluid levels or cause the tissues in the eyes that help you focus to swell, resulting in blurred vision.”
The US National Library of Medicine says high blood sugar levels can cause diabetic macular edema, which occurs when blood vessels in the retina leak fluid into the macula (a part of the retina needed for sharp central vision). It usually develops in people who already have other signs of diabetic retinopathy.
Patients with diabetes can be at risk of glaucoma, a group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve, which is the bundle of nerves that connects the eye to the brain.
“Diabetic glaucoma occurs when blood vessels in the front of the eye are damaged and new blood vessels grow near the iris (the colored part of the eye). These block the space through which fluid exits the eye, pooling and increasing pressure on the eye,” the Library of Medicine specifies.
Accumulated glucose in the blood can cause cataracts to formwhich occur when the clear lens at the front of the eye becomes cloudy.
In addition to the conditions this disease can cause in the eyes, it can cause diabetic neuropathy and manifest itself with tingling in the hands and feet, among other things.
This neuropathy is a type of nerve damage caused by keeping blood sugar levels high for a long time. “This condition typically develops slowly, sometimes over several decades,” says the CDC.
For this reason, experts recommend that if you experience numbness, tingling, pain or weakness in your hands or feet, you should see a doctor as these are early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. It is usually dangerous when there is no pain but a foot ulcer develops.
When severe or persistent peripheral neuropathy is present, patients can be vulnerable to injury or infection, and in complex cases, poor healing or infection can lead to amputation, particularly of the lower limbs.